Are there any solutions?
The open source software movement offers an alternative model for structuring legal and business landscapes.
Several different types of creative licenses for copyright bind users and developers of core technology to continually share their improvements in a commons. Such licenses have encouraged a vibrant, robust new set of business models and a sustainable set of behavioral norms to emerge.
These new business models are refocusing efforts in the private sector to deliver and support quality products for sustainable revenues rather than obtaining illusory competitive advantage in the short term by suppressing competition at the entry or innovation level. We anticipate that in biology as well, adaptation of these pre-competitive paradigms to the sharing and co-creation of new enabling technologies will similarly empower both public and private sectors to develop health and agricultural products and processes of real relevance to all sectors of society.